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Time-course of antipredator behavioral changes induced by the helminth *Pomphorhynchus laevis* in its intermediate host *Gammarus pulex*: the switch in manipulation according to parasite developmental stage differs between behaviorsuse asterix (*) to get italics
Thierry Rigaud, Aude Balourdet, Alexandre BauerPlease use the format "First name initials family name" as in "Marie S. Curie, Niels H. D. Bohr, Albert Einstein, John R. R. Tolkien, Donna T. Strickland"
<p style="text-align: justify;">Many trophically transmitted parasites with complex life cycles manipulate their intermediate host antipredatory defenses in ways facilitating their transmission to final host by predation. Some parasites also protect the intermediate host from predation when noninfective during its ontogeny. The acanthocephalan <em>Pomphorynchus laevis</em>, a fish intestinal helminth, infecting freshwater gammarid amphipods as intermediate hosts, is using such a strategy of protection-then-exposure to predation by the definitive host. The whole time-course of this sequence of behavioral switch is however not yet known, and only one antipredator behavior has been studied to date. Here we show that the protective part of this manipulation begins early during the parasite ontogeny, in accordance with theoretical predictions, suggesting that the advantages overpass the costs induced by this protective manipulation. We confirmed that the refuge use behavior is showing a switch in the few days following the stage mature for the definitive host (switching from overuse to underuse). However, such a switch was not observed for the gammarids activity rate, a behavior also known to make the host less conspicuous to predators when weak. While we predicted a low activity during early development stages, then a switch to high activity, we observed general decrease in activity during the parasite ontogeny. The possible causes for this discrepancy between behaviors are discussed. All these behavioral changes were observed mostly when animals were tested in water scented by potential predators (here brown trout), suggesting condition-dependent, adaptive, manipulation.</p> should fill this box only if you chose 'All or part of the results presented in this preprint are based on data'. URL must start with http:// or https:// should fill this box only if you chose 'Scripts were used to obtain or analyze the results'. URL must start with http:// or https://
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parasite-induced behavioral manipulation, acanthocephalan, freshwater amphipod
NonePlease indicate the methods that may require specialised expertise during the peer review process (use a comma to separate various required expertises).
Aquatic, Behavior, Crustacea, Invertebrates, Parasitology
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2023-06-20 15:49:32
Thierry Lefevre